Each chapter concludes with Summary, and Questions and Problems.

**Preface.** **1. Why the Social Researcher Uses Statistics.** The Nature of Social Research.

Why Test Hypotheses?

The Stages of Social Research.

Using Series of Numbers to Do Social Research.

The Functions of Statistics.

**I. DESCRIPTION.**

**2. Organizing the Data.** Frequency Distributions of Nominal Data.

Comparing Distributions.

Proportions and Percentages.

Simple Frequency Distributions of Ordinal and Interval Data.

Grouped Frequency Distributions of Interval Data.

Cumulative Distributions.

Dealing with Decimal Data.

Flexible Class Intervals.

Cross-Tabulations.

Graphic Presentations.

**3. Measures of Central Tendency.** The Mode.

The Median.

The Mean.

Taking One Step at a Time.

Comparing the Mode, Median, and Mean.

**4. Measures of Variability.** The Range.

The Variance and Standard Deviation.

The Raw-Score Formula for Variance and Standard Deviation.

The Meaning of the Standard Deviation.

Comparing Measures of Variability.

Terms to Remember.

**II. FROM DESCRIPTION TO DECISION MAKING.**

**5. Probability and the Normal Curve.** Probability.

Probability Distributions.

The Normal Curve as a Probability Distribution.

Characteristics of the Normal Curve.

The Model and the Reality of the Normal Curve.

The Area Under the Normal Curve.

Finding Probability Under the Normal Curve.

**6. Samples and Populations.** Random Sampling.

Sampling Error.

Sampling Distribution of Means.

Standard Error of the Mean.

Confidence Intervals.

The t Distribution.

Estimating Proportions.

**III. DECISION MAKING.**

**7. Testing Differences Between Means.** The Null Hypothesis: No Difference Between Means.

The Research Hypothesis: A Difference Between Means.

Sampling Distribution of Differences Between Means.

Testing Hypotheses with the Distribution of Differences Between Means.

Levels of Significance.

Standard Error of the Difference Between Means.

Testing the Difference Between Means.

Comparing the Same Sample Measured Twice.

Two Sample Tests of Proportions.

Requirements for Testing the Difference Between Means.

Terms to Remember.

**8. Analysis of Variance.** The Logic of Analysis of Variance.

The Sum of Squares.

Mean Square.

The F Ratio.

Requirements for Using the F Ratio.

Terms to Remember.

**9. Nonparametric Tests of Significance.** The Chi-Square Test.

The Median Test.

**IV. FROM DECISION MAKING TO ASSOCIATION.**

**10. Correlation.** Strength of Correlation.

Direction of Correlation.

The Correlation Coefficient.

Pearson's Correlation Coefficient.

Terms to Remember.

**11. Regression Analysis.** The Regression Model.

Interpreting the Regression Line.

Regression and Pearson's Correlation.

**12. Nonparametric Measures of Correlation.** Spearman's Rank-Order Correlation Coefficient.

Goodman's and Kruskal's Gamma.

Correlation Coefficient for Nominal Data Arranged in a 2 x 2 Table.

Correlation Coefficients for Nominal Data in Larger than 2 x 2 Tables.

**V. APPLYING STATISTICS.**

**13. Choosing Statistical Procedures for Research Problems.** Research Situations.

Research Solutions.

**Appendix A. A Review of Some Fundamentals of Mathematics.** **Appendix B. Tables.** **Appendix C. List of Formulas.** **Glossary.** **Answers to Selected Problems.** **Index.**