Fyodor Dostoevsky was born in Moscow in 1821 and studied in St Petersburg. His first work of fiction was the epistolary novel Poor Folk (1846), which met with a generally favourable response, but his subsequent works in the same period were less enthusiastically received. In 1849 Dostoevsky was arrested as a member of the socialist Petrashevsky circle, and suffered four years in a Siberian penal settlement followed by another four years of enforced military service. He returned to writing in the late 1850s and it was during the last twenty years of his life that he wrote the iconic works, Notes from the Underground (1864), Crime and Punishment (1866) and The Brothers Karamazov (1880). He died in 1881.