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Writing Arguments John D. Ramage

Writing Arguments par John D. Ramage

Writing Arguments John D. Ramage

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Writing Arguments Résumé

Writing Arguments: A Rhetoric with Readings, Concise Edition John D. Ramage

The market-leading guide to arguments, Writing Arguments has proven highly successful in teaching readers to read arguments critically and to produce effective arguments of their own.



1. Argument: An Introduction.

What Do We Mean by Argument?

Argument Requires Justification of Its Claims.

Argument Is Both a Process and a Product.

Argument Combines Truth Seeking and Persuasion.

Argument and the Problem of Truth.

A Successful Process of Argumentation: The Well-Functioning Committee.

Gordon Adams, Petition to Waive the University Math Requirement (Student Essay).


2. Reading Arguments.

Why Reading Arguments Is Important for Writers.

Strategy 1: Reading as a Believer.

*Lisa Turner, Playing with Our Food.

Strategy 2: Reading as a Doubter.

Strategy 3: Exploring How Rhetorical Context and Genre Shape the Argument.

Strategy 4: Seeking Out Alternative Views and Analyzing Sources of Disagreement.

*Council for Biotechnology Information, Biotech Labeling: Why Biotech Labeling Can Confuse Consumers.

*An Analysis of the Sources of Disagreement between Lisa Turner and the Council for Biotechnology Information (Sample Analysis Essay).

Strategy 5: Using Disagreement Productively to Prompt Further Investigation.


3. Writing Arguments.

Who Writes Arguments and Why?

Tips for Improving Your Writing Process.

Using Exploratory Writing to Discover Ideas and Deepen Thinking.

Shaping Your Argument: Classical Argument as a Planning Tool.

Using Exploratory Writing to Discover Ideas and Deepen Thinking: Two Sets of Exploratory Tasks.

Writing Assignments for Chapters 1-3.


4. The Core of an Argument: A Claim with Reasons.

An Introduction to the Classical Appeals.

Issue Questions as the Origins of Argument.

Difference Between a Genuine Argument and a Pseudo-Argument.

Frame of an Argument: A Claim Supported by Reasons.

Applying This Chapter's Principles to Your Own Writing.

Applying This Chapter's Principles to Reading Arguments.

5. The Logical Structure of Arguments.

Overview of Logos: What Do We Mean by the Logical Structure of an Argument?

Adopting a Language for Describing Arguments: The Toulmin System.

Using Toulmin's Schema to Determine a Strategy of Support.

The Power of Audience-Based Reasons.

6. Using Evidence Effectively.

General Principles for the Persuasive Use of Evidence.

Rhetorical Understanding of Evidence.

Gathering Evidence.

Writing Assignments for Chapters 4-6.

David Langley, 'Half-Criminals' or Urban Athletes? A Plea for Fair Treatment of Skateboarders (Student Essay).

7. Moving Your Audience: Ethos, Pathos, and Kairos.

Ethos and Pathos as Persuasive Appeals: An Overview.

How to Create an Effective Ethos: The Appeal to Credibility.

How to Create Pathos: The Appeal to Beliefs and Emotions.

Kairos-The Timeliness and Fitness of Arguments

8. Accommodating Your Audience: Treating Differing Views.

One-Sided, Multisided, and Dialogic Arguments.

Determining Your Audience's Resistance to Your Views.

Appealing to a Supportive Audience: One-Sided Argument.

Appealing to a Neutral or Undecided Audience: Classical Argument.

Appealing to a Resistant Audience: Dialogic Argument.

Ellen Goodman, Minneapolis Pornography Ordinance.

*Rebekah Taylor, Letter to Jim (Student Essay).

Writing Assignments for Chapters 7 and 8.

9. Conducting Visual Arguments.

Understanding Design Elements in Visual Argument.

*Drug Enforcement Administration, A Single Hit of Ecstasy... (advocacy advertisement)

The Compositional Features of Photographs and Drawings.

The Genres of Visual Argument.

Constructing Your Own Visual Argument.

*Leah Johnson, Drink and Then Drive? Jeopardize My Future? (student essay)

Using Information Graphics in Arguments.

Writing Assignment for Chapter 9.


10. An Introduction to Types of Claims.

An Overview of the Types of Claims.

How Knowledge of Claim Types Will Help You Focus an Argument and Generate Ideas

Hybrid Arguments: How Claim Types Work Together in Arguments

Aaron Friedman, All That Noise for Nothing

11. Categorical and Definition Arguments: X Is (Is Not) a Y.

An Overview of Categorical Arguments.

Simple Categorical Arguments.

An Overview of Definitional Arguments.

The Criteria-Match Structure of Definitional Arguments.

Conceptual Problems of Definition.

Kinds of Definitions.

Strategies for Defining the Contested Term in a Definitional Argument.

Conducting the Match Part of a Definitional Argument.

Organizing a Definitional Argument.

Questioning and Critiquing a Definitional Argument.


Kathy Sullivan, Oncore, Obscenity, and the Liquor Control Board (Student Essay).

Writing Assignment for Chapter 11.

12. Causal Arguments: X Causes (Does Not Cause) Y.

An Overview of Causal Arguments.

The Nature of Causal Arguing.

Describing a Causal Argument in Toulmin Terms.

Three Methods for Arguing That One Event Causes Another.

Glossary of Terms Encountered in Causal Arguments.

Organizing Your Causal Argument.

Questioning and Critiquing a Causal Argument.


Daeha Ko, The Monster That Is High School (student essay).

*United Way, Kids Who Do Not Participate (Advocacy Advertisement).

Writing Assignment for Chapter 12.

13. Resemblance Arguments: X Is (Is Not) Like Y.

An Overview of Resemblance Arguments.

Arguments by Analogy.

Arguments by Precedent.

Organizing a Resemblance Argument.

Questioning and Critiquing a Resemblance Argument.


*Megan Matthews, Whales Need Silence (Student Essay).

Sven Van Assche, Knock! Knock! (Political Cartoon)

Writing Assignment for Chapter 13.

14. Evaluation and Ethical Arguments: X Is (Is Not) a Good Y; X Is Right (Wrong).

An Overview of Evaluation Arguments.

Criteria-Match Structure of Evaluation Arguments.

Conducting a Categorical Evaluation Argument.

An Overview of Ethical Arguments.

Major Ethical Systems.

Constructing an Ethical Argument.

Common Problems in Making Evaluation Arguments.

Organizing an Evaluation Argument.

Critiquing a Categorical Evaluation.

Critiquing an Ethical Evaluation.


Sam Isaacson, Would Legalization of Gay Marriage Be Good for the Gay Community? (Student Essay).

David Holcberg, Human Organs for Sale?

Writing Assignment for Chapter 14.

15. Proposal Arguments: We Should (Should Not) Do X.

The Nature of Proposal Arguments.

The Structure of Proposal Arguments.

Special Concerns for Proposal Arguments.

Developing a Proposal Argument.

Proposal Arguments as Advocacy Posters or Advertisements.

Using the Claim-Type Strategy to Develop a Proposal Argument.

Using the Stock Issues Strategy to Develop a Proposal Argument.

Organizing a Proposal Argument.

Questioning and Critiquing a Proposal Argument.


*Mark Bonicillo, A Proposal for Universal Health Insurance in the United States (MLA-Style Student Research Paper).

Maia Szalavitz, Let a Thousand Poppies Bloom

Writing Assignment for Chapter 15.


Appendix 1: Informal Fallacies.

Fallacies of Pathos

Fallacies of Ethos

Fallacies of Logos

Appendix 2: A Concise Guide to Finding, Evaluating, and Documenting Sources.

Finding Print Articles: Searching a Licensed Database.

Finding Cyberspace Sources: Searching the World Wide Web.

Evaluating Sources.

Evaluating Web Sites.

Using Sources and Avoiding Plagiarism.

Citing Sources in MLA Style

Documenting Sources in a Works Cited List (MLA).

MLA Quick Reference Guide for the Most Common Citations.

Formatting an Academic Paper in MLA Style.

Student Example of an MLA-Style Research Paper.

Citing Sources in APA Style.

Documenting Sources in a References List (APA).

APA Quick Reference Guide for the Most Common Citations.

Student example of an APA-Style Research Paper.

*Megan Matthews, Sounding the Alarm: Navy Sonar and the Survival of Whales (APA-Style Student Research Paper).



Informations supplémentaires

Writing Arguments: A Rhetoric with Readings, Concise Edition John D. Ramage
Occasion - Très bon état
Pearson Education (US)
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