Longman Pronunciation Dictionary J. C. Wells
The Longman Pronunciation Dictionary is designed to reflect English as it is spoken. In the introduction, the author discusses the general features of spoken English and discusses trends in speech. Short usage notes throughout the dictionary draw attention to possible pitfalls and to aspects of pronunciation which often present problems for learners of the language. The words included cover not only ordinary and technical vocabulary, but also proper names, placenames, family names, personal names, names from literature and mythology and names of companies and commercial products. Both British and American varieties are covered. Pronunciation shown covers Received Pronunciation and General American; assumes a modernized version of RP and also includes a number of British English near-RP forms. The alphabet of the International Phonetic Association is used. Each word is shown with its recommended pronunciation, while alternative pronunciations in common use are given in lighter type. The pronunciation is divided into syllables and special attention is drawn to words which are, or are not, pronounced alike. In addition, there are authoritative statements on controversial words recording the preferences of a panel of specialists and special treatment of affixes and combining forms which reflect their pronunciation in different phonetic environments and their effects on stress. There are also notes on typical features of English pronunication paying attention to the needs of learners of the language.