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Teaching and Learning K-8 By Richard, D. Kellough

Teaching and Learning K-8 by Richard, D. Kellough

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Teaching and Learning K-8 Summary

Teaching and Learning K-8: A Guide to Methods and Resources by Richard, D. Kellough

For General Elementary Methods courses. Teaching and Learning in the Elementary School is built on the most current research and "best" practice. It thoroughly examines all of the fundamental teaching skill categories - planning for instruction, assessing student learning, grouping for instruction, and creating a safe and effective learning environment - while constantly reinforcing the idea that effective elementary school teaching requires continual, thoughtful, and reflective decision-making. In this popular volume, three well-known authors paint a realistic portrait of elementary school teaching as a call to motivate, to encourage, to simulate, to build self-esteem, and to care for elementary school children. NEW! Teaching and Learning K-8: A Guide to Methods and Resources now includes a 6-month access code to our robust Teacher Prep Website. Ask your local Merrill Education/Prentice Hall representative for more information about this popular resource today! Or better yet, click on Take A Guided Tour of the Ultimate Classroom in the Teacher Prep Website above and explore the vast resources available to you and your students.

Table of Contents

BRIEF CONTENTS Chapter 1 Elementary School Teaching Today: An Overview of Influences and Challenges Chapter 2 The Teacher's Professional Responsibilities Chapter 3 Developing Thinking and Questioning Skills Chapter 4 Planning and Managing the Classroom Learning Environment Chapter 5 Planning the Curriculum Chapter 6 Planning the Instruction Chapter 7 Assessing and Evaluating Student Performance Chapter 8 Organizing and Grouping Children for Quality Learning Chapter 9 Additional Strategies and Strategy Integration Glossary References Index DETAILED CONTENTS CHAPTER 1 ELEMENTARY SCHOOL TEACHING TODAY: AN OVERVIEW OF INFLUENCES AND CHALLENGES ANTICIPATED OUTCOMES FUNDAMENTAL PURPOSES OF ELEMENTARY EDUCATION Literacy Citizenship Education Personal Development Quality Education for Each and Every Child DIVERSITY IN THE CLASSROOM FAMILY LIFE SOCIOECONOMIC INFLUENCES EQUALITY OF EDUCATIONAL OPPORTUNITY Student Rights Activity 1.1 Teach but Don't Touch Learning Styles Race and Racism Gender Equity Inclusion Newcomers to the English Language School Choice and Organizational Change Grade-Level Organization The Graded School Concept Activity 1.2 Graded vs. Nongraded School: Study, Debate, and Vote CURRICULUM STANDARDS AND ACHIEVEMENT TESTING Preparing Students for High-Stakes Achievement Testing SOCIAL TRAGEDIES Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS): The Threat Continues Illicit Drug Use Child Abuse and Neglect Youth Gangs Bullying and Violence PARENTS, GUARDIANS, AND THE COMMUNITY Activity 1.3 Neighborhood Violence SERVICE LEARNING SUMMARY STUDY QUESTIONS AND ADDITIONAL ACTIVIES WEB SITES RELATED TO CONTENT OF THIS CHAPTER FOR FURTHER READING CHAPTER 2 THE TEACHER'S PROFESSIONAL RESPONSIBILITIES Activity 2.1 Is This a Typical Day for a Fifth-Grade Teacher? ANTICIPATED OUTCOMES THE TEACHER AS A REFLECTIVE DECISION MAKER Decision-Making Phases of Instruction Reflection, Locus of Control, Sense of Self-Efficacy, and Teacher Responsibility COMMITMENT AND PROFESSIONALISM IDENTIFYING AND BUILDING YOUR INSTRUCTIONAL COMPETENCES Fundamental Assumptions Facilitating Behaviors and Instructional Strategies: A Clarification Structuring the Learning Environment Accepting and Sharing Instructional Accountability Demonstrate Withitness and Overlapping Providing a Variety of Motivating and Challenging Activities Modeling Appropriate Behaviors Facilitating Student Acquisition of Data Creating and Maintaining a Psychologically Safe Environment Clarifying Whenever Necessary Using Periods of Silence Questioning Thoughtfully CHARACTERISTICS OF THE COMPETENT CLASSROOM TEACHER: AN ANNOTATED LIST Activity 2.2 Are Teachers Prepared to Deal with the Severe Social and Emotional Problems Many Children Bring to School? If Not, Who Is? SELECTING AND USING MEDIA AND OTHER RESOURCES AND TOOLS FOR INSTRUCTION Activity 2.3 Is Technology Changing the Role of the Classroom Teacher? The Internet Professional Journals and Periodicals Copying Printed Materials The Classroom Writing Board The Classroom Bulletin Board Community Resources Media Tools Computers and Computer-Based Instructional Tools Using Copyrighted Video, Computer, and Multimedia Programs SUMMARY STUDY QUESTIONS AND ADDITIONAL ACTIVITIES WEB SITES RELATED TO CONTENT OF THIS CHAPTER FOR FURTHER READING CHAPTER 3 DEVELOPING THINKING AND QUESTIONING SKILLS ANTICIPATED OUTCOMES TEACHING THINKING Characteristics of Intelligent Behavior Direct Teaching for Thinking and Intelligent Behavior Direct Teaching of Skills Used in Thinking DEVELOPING SKILL IN USING QUESTIONS Framing and Stating Questions Sequencing Questions Pacing the Questioning Activity 3.1 Create a Story THE TEACHER'S RESPONSES TO STUDENTS Passive (Nonjudgmental) Acceptance Response Evaluative (Judgmental) Response Activity 3.2 How Would You Say It? Restating and Clarifying Probing Cueing SOCRATIC QUESTIONING QUESTIONS THAT FOCUS ON SPECIFIC PURPOSES Procedural Questions Questions That Check Literal Comprehension Reflective or "Thought" Questions QUESTIONS FROM STUDENTS Activity 3.3 And Then You Said ... Activity 3.4 And Elliot Eisner Said ... The Question-Driven Classroom Questioning: The Cornerstone of Critical Thinking, Real-World Problem Solving, and Meaningful Learning Activity 3.5 Think Time and the Art of Questioning SUMMARY STUDY QUESTIONS AND ADDITIONAL ACTIVITIES WEB SITES RELATED TO CONTENT OF THIS CHAPTER FOR FURTHER READING CHAPTER 4 PLANNING AND MANAGING THE CLASSROOM LEARNING ENVIRONMENT ANTICIPATED OUTCOMES A VALUES-BASED MANAGEMENT PLAN A CLARIFICATION OF TERMS Classroom Management: Contributions of Leading Experts CHARACTERISTICS OF AN EFFECTIVELY MANAGED CLASSROOM Enhancing Mental and Social Development Facilitating the Achievement of Instructional Goals Providing Boundaries of Intellectual and Physical Freedom Thinking in Terms of Procedures Rather Than Rules; Consequences Rather Than Punishment Developing Skills of Self-Direction and Responsible Involvement Working Toward Warm Human Relations SERIOUSNESS OF PROBLEMS Goofing Off Disruptions to Learning Defiance, Cheating, Lying, and Stealing Bullying and Violence Activity 4.1 Shouldn't Punishment Fit the Crime? CONFLICT RESOLUTION Minimizing Conflict and Encouraging Harmonious Social Relations Resolving Conflicts Immediately, with a Plan for Longer-Range Solutions Providing Instruction on Conflict and Conflict Resolution ORGANIZATIONAL ASPECTS OF CLASSROOM MANAGEMENT Starting the School Term Well Activity 4.2 My Emerging Plan for Classroom Management Schedule and Routines Activity 4.3 Ms. Badger's Effort to Empower Children Clarity of Directions and Goals Physical Arrangements Activity 4.4 First Day of Spring--What Would You Have Done? Transitions Activity 4.5 What's Wrong Here? SUMMARY STUDY QUESTIONS AND ADDITIONAL ACTIVITIES WEB SITES RELATED TO CONTENT OF THIS CHAPTER FOR FURTHER READING CHAPTER 5 PLANNING THE CURRICULUM ANTICIPATED OUTCOMES HELPING CHILDREN MAKE SUCCESSFUL TRANSITIONS CURRICULUM AND INSTRUCTION: CLARIFICATION OF TERMS Activity 5.1 What Really is Being Learned? Curriculum Components PLANNING FOR INSTRUCTION: THREE LEVELS Teacher-Student Collaborative Planning Reasons for Planning COMPONENTS OF AN INSTRUCTIONAL PLAN CURRICULUM CONTENT SELECTION: DOCUMENTS THAT PROVIDE GUIDANCE Curriculum Standards Curriculum Standards and High Stakes Testing Activity 5.2 Examining Curriculum Documents and Standards Student Textbooks Activity 5.3 Examining Student Textbooks and Teacher's Editions BEGINNING TO THINK ABOUT THE SEQUENCING OF CONTENT Activity 5.4 Preparing a Full Semester Content Outline PREPARING FOR AND DEALING WITH CONTROVERSY AIMS, GOALS, AND OBJECTIVES: THE ANTICIPATED OUTCOMES Instructional Objectives and Their Relationship to Aligned Curriculum and Authentic Assessment Learning Targets and Goal Indicators: Meaning of "Quality Learning" Overt and Overt Performance Outcomes Balance of Behaviorism and Constructivism TEACHING TOWARD MULTIPLE OBJECTIVES, UNDERSTANDINGS, AND APPRECIATIONS: THE REALITY OF MODERN CLASSROOM INSTRUCTION PREPARING INSTRUCTIONAL OBJECIVES Components of a Complete Objective Activity 5.5 Recognizing Verbs That Are Acceptable for Overt Objectives Activity 5.6 Recognizing the Parts of Criterion-Referenced Instructional Objectives Activity 5.7 Recognizing Objectives That Are Measurable Classifying Instructional Objectives The Domains Of Learning and the Developmental Characteristics Of Children Cognitive Domain Hierarchy Affective Domain Hierarchy Psychomotor Domain Hierarchy Activity 5.8 Assessing Recognition of Objectives According to Domain Activity 5.9 Preparing Instructional Objectives for Use in My Teaching USING THE TAXONOMIES Observing for Connected (Meaningful) Learning: Logs, Portfolios, and Journals Character Education and the Domains of Learning LEARNING THAT IS NOT IMMEDIATELY OBSERVABLE INTEGRATED CURRICULUM Level 1 Curriculum Integration Level 2 Curriculum Integration Level 3 Curriculum Integration Level 4 Curriculum Integration Level 5 Curriculum Integration Integrated Curriculum in a Standards-Based Environment PLANNING FOR INSTRUCTION: A THREE-LEVEL AND SEVEN-STEP PROCESS THE SYLLABUS Use and Development of a Syllabus Content of a Syllabus SUMMARY STUDY QUESTIONS AND ADDITIONAL ACTIVITIES WEB SITES RELATED TO CONTENT OF THIS CHAPTER FOR FURTHER READING CHAPTER 6 PLANNING THE INSTRUCTION ANTICIPATED OUTCOMES THE INSTRUCTIONAL UNIT Planning and Developing any Unit of Instruction Unit Format, Inclusive Elements, and Time Duration THEORETICAL CONSIDERATIONS FOR THE SELECTION OF INSTRUCTIONAL STRATEGIES Decision Making and Strategy Selection Principles of Classroom Instruction and Learning: A Synopsis Conceptual and Procedural Knowledge Direct versus Indirect Instructional Modes: Strengths and Weaknesses of Each SELECTING LEARNING ACTIVITIES THAT ARE DEVELOPMENTALLY APPROPRIATE STYLES OF LEARNING AND IMPLICATIONS FOR INSTRUCTIONAL PLANNING Learning Modality Learning Style The Three-Phase Learning Cycle Learning Capacities: The Theory of Multiple Intelligences THE LEARNING EXPERIENCES LADDER Direct, Simulated, and Vicarious Experiences Help Connect Student Learning PLANNING AND DEVELOPING AN INTERDISCIPLINARY THEMATIC UNIT Specific Guidelines for Developing an ITU Developing the Learning Activities: The Heart and Spirit of the ITU The Common Thread Initiating Activities Developmental Activities Culminating Activity PREPARING THE LESSON PLANS: RATIONALE AND ASSUMPTIONS Rationale for Preparing Written Plans Assumptions About Lesson Planning A Continual Process Activity 6.1 Was This Lesson "Set in Concrete"? Making Adjustments as Needed The Problem of Time The Pressure of Standards-Based and High-Stakes Testing and the Felt Need to "Cover" the Prescribed Curriculum Caution about "The Weekly Planning Book" LESSON PLAN CONSTRUCTION: FORMAT, ELEMENTS, AND SAMPLES For Guidance, Reflection, and Reference Basic Elements of a Lesson Plan Setting the Learning Objectives Activity 6.2a Preparing a Lesson Plan Activity 6.2b Self- and Peer-Assessment of My Lesson Plan Activity 6.3 Bringing It All Together: Preparing an Instructional Unit SUMMARY STUDY QUESTIONS AND ADDITIONAL ACTIVITIES WEB SITES RELATED TO CONTENT OF THIS CHAPTER FOR FURTHER READING CHAPTER 7 ASSESSING AND EVALUATING STUDENT PERFORMANCE ANTICIPATED OUTCOMES THE LANGUAGE OF ASSESSMENT Evaluation, Assessment, and Measurement Authentic and Performance Assessment Formative and Summative Assessment Norm-Referenced and Criterion-Referenced Tests Readiness Testing Validity and Reliability ASSESSMENT IN THE CONTEXT OF INSTRUCTION Activity 7.1 Make It Right, Write! ASSESSMENT IN THE CLASSROOM Helping Children Deal with Test Anxiety STUDENT PARTICIPATION IN ASSESSMENT Using Student Portfolios Using Checklists and Scoring Rubrics Guidelines for Using Portfolios for Instruction and Assessment DIAGNOSTIC ASSESSMENT AND CORRECTIVE INSTRUCTION The Teacher as Diagnostician Avoid Labeling Diagnostic and Corrective Procedures What Evidence is There That A Learning Problem Exists? Activity 7.2 Selecting the Right One What Specific Learning Difficulty is the Child Encountering? What Level of Corrective Work is Required? GRADING AND MARKING Determining Grades Assessment and Grading: Not Synonymous Terms REPORTING STUDENT PROGRESS IN ACHIEVEMENT SUMMARY STUDY QUESTIONS AND ADDITIONAL ACTIVITIES WEB SITES RELATED TO CONTENT OF THIS CHAPTER FOR FURTHER READING CHAPTER 8 ORGANIZING AND GROUPING CHILDREN FOR QUALITY LEARNING ANTICIPATED OUTCOMES MASTERY LEARNING AND PERSONALIZED INSTRUCTION Today's Emphasis: Quality Learning for Every Child Assumptions about Mastery, or Quality, Learning Elements of Any Mastery Learning Model: The Cycle of Teaching Strategies for Personalizing the Instruction Now! ACCOMMODATING STUDENT DIFFERENCES: RECOGNIZING AND WORKING WITH SPECIFIC LEARNERS Children with Special Needs Children of Diversity and Differences Children Who Are Gifted Meaningful Curriculum Options: Multiple Pathways to Success Children Who Take More Time but Are Willing to Try Recalcitrant Learners LEARNING ALONE Activity 8.1 The Self-Instructional Module LEARNING IN PAIRS The Learning Center LEARNING IN SMALL GROUPS Purposes for Using Small Groups COOPERATIVE LEARNING The Cooperative Learning Group (CLG) The Theory and Use of Cooperative Learning Roles Within the Cooperative Learning Group What Students and the Teacher Do When Using Cooperative Learning Grouops When to Use Cooperative Learning Groups Cooperative Group Learning, Assessment, and Grading Why Some Teachers Experience Difficulty Using CLGs LEARNING IN LARGE GROUPS Student Presentations Whole-Class Discussion Activity 8.2 Whole-Class Discussion as a Teaching Strategy EQUALITY IN THE CLASSROOM Ensuring Equity Activity 8.3 Teacher Interaction with Students According to Student Gender (or Other Student Difference) LEARNING FROM ASSIGNMENTS AND HOMEWORK Purposes for Assignments Guidelines for Using Assignments Opportunities for Recovery How to Avoid Having So Many Papers to Grade That Time for Effective Planning is Restricted PROJECT-CENTERED LEARNING: GUIDING LEARNING FROM INDEPENDENT AND GROUP INVESTIGATIONS, PAPERS, AND ORAL REPORTS Values and Purposes of Project-Centered Learning Guidelines for Guiding Students in Project-Centered Learning Writing as a Required Component of Project-Centered Learning Assessing the Final Product WRITING: EVERY TEACHER'S RESPONSIBILITY Kinds of Writing Student Journals A COLLECTION OF ANNOTATED MOTIVATIONAL TEACHING STRATEGIES WITH IDEAS FOR LESSONS, INTERDISCIPLINARY TEACHING, TRANSCULTURAL STUDIES, AND STUDENT PROJECTS The Visual and Performing Arts English, Languages, and the Language Arts Mathematics Physical Education Science Social Studies/History SUMMARY STUDY QUESTIONS AND ADDITIONAL ACTIVITIES WEB SITES RELATED TO CONTENT OF THIS CHAPTER FOR FURTHER READING CHAPTER 9 ADDITIONAL STRATEGIES AND STRATEGY INTEGRATION ANTICIPATED OUTCOMES TEACHER TALK: FORMAL AND INFORMAL Cautions in Using Teacher Talk Teacher Talk: General Guidelines Teacher Talk: Specific Guidelines DEMONSTRATIONS Reasons for Using Demonstrations Guidelines for Using Demonstrations INQUIRY TEACHING AND DISCOVER LEARNING Problem Solving Inquiry versus Discovery True Inquiry Activity 9.1 Does It Really Matter What It's Called? The Critical Thinking Skills of Discovery and Inquiry INTEGRATING STRATEGIES FOR INTEGRATED LEARNING Activity 9.2 A Study of Inquiry and Strategy Integration EDUCATIONAL GAMES Classification of Educational Games Functions of Educational Games Activity 9.3 Developing a Lesson Using Inquiry Level II, Thinking Skill Development, a Demonstration, or an Interactive Lecture SUMMARY STUDY QUESTIONS AND ADDITIONAL ACTIVITIES WEB SITES RELATED TO CONTENT OF THIS CHAPTER FOR FURTHER READING

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Teaching and Learning K-8: A Guide to Methods and Resources by Richard, D. Kellough
Used - Very Good
Pearson Education (US)
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