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Research Methods By Anthony M. Graziano

Research Methods by Anthony M. Graziano

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Summary

This comprehensive text explores the entire range of research methodologies in psychology, using a programmatic approach to introduce topics and build on earlier presentations to increase student understanding. It includes the most extensive package of web-based pedagogical features of any text in this market.

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Research Methods Summary

Research Methods: A Process of Inquiry: United States Edition by Anthony M. Graziano

This comprehensive book explores the entire range of research methodologies in psychology, using a programmatic approach to introduce topics and build on earlier presentations to increase understanding. It includes the most extensive package of web-based features of any book in this market.

Table of Contents

1. Curiosity, Creativity, and Commitment

Using the Resources of this Text

Exploring the Student Resource Website

Using SPSS for Windows

Science

Science Is a Way of Thinking

Asking Questions

Science and Art

(Historical Lesson: The three princes of Serendip)

(Historical Lesson: Charles Darwin and Alfred Russel Wallace)

Acquiring Knowledge

Tenacity

Intuition

Authority

Rationalism

Empiricism

Science

(Historical Lesson: Leonardo da Vinci)

Emergence of Science

Early Civilization

Greek Science

Medieval Science

The Scientific Revolution

Ethical Concerns

Psychology

The History of Psychology

Structuralism

Functionalism

Psychodynamics

Gestalt Psychology

Behaviorism

Humanistic Psychology

Cognitive Psychology

Women and Minorities in Psychology

Modern Psychology

The Science of Psychology

(Cost of Neglect: Science and Pseudoscience)

Putting It into Practice

Chapter Summary

Exercises

2. Research Is a Process of Inquiry

The Scientific Process

Basic Assumptions of Science

Observation and Inference: Facts and Constructs

Inductive and Deductive Thinking

Models and Theories in Science

(Historical Lesson: The Wright Brothers as Scientists)

A Model of the Research Process

Phases of Research

Idea-Generating Phase

Problem-Definition Phase

Procedures-Design Phase

Observation Phase

Data-Analysis Phase

Interpretation Phase

Communication Phase

Levels of Constraint

Naturalistic Observation

Case-Study Research

Correlational Research

Differential Research

Experimental Research

Putting It into Practice

Chapter Summary

Exercises

3. The Starting Point: Asking Questions

Asking and Refining Questions

Pursuing Your Personal Interests

Following up on the Work of Others

Applied and Basic Research

Refining Questions for Research

Types of Variables in Research

Classifying Variables Based on Their Nature

Behavioral Variables

Stimulus Variables

Organismic Variables

Classifying Variables Based on Their Use in Research

Independent and Dependent Variables

Extraneous Variables

Variables as Constants

Validity and the Control of Extraneous Variables

Research Ethics

Ethical Principles for Human Research

Institutional Review Boards

Ethical Checks

(Costs of Neglect: Never Let Technology Outrun Ethics)

Ethics and Diversity Issues in Research

Ethical Principles for Animal Research

Putting It into Practice

Chapter Summary

Exercises

4. Data and the Nature of Measurement

Measurement

(Costs of Neglect: Missing Mars)

Scales of Measurement

Nominal Scales

Ordinal Scales

Interval Scales

Ratio Scales

Measuring and Controlling Variables

Measurement Error

Operational Definitions

Evaluating Measures

Reliability

Interrater Reliability

Test-Retest Reliability

Internal Consistency Reliability

Effective Range

Validity

The Need for Objective Measurement

Putting It into Practice

Chapter Summary

Exercises

5. Statistical Analysis of Data

Individual Differences

Organizing Data

Frequency Distributions

Nominal and Ordinal Data

Score Data

Graphical Representation of Data

Descriptive Statistics

Measures of Central Tendency

(Cost of Neglect: Lies, Damn Lies, and Statistics: A Matter of Ethics)

Measures of Variability

Measures of Relationship

Pearson Product-Moment Correlation

Spearman Rank-Order Correlation

Regression

Reliability Indices

Standard Scores

Statistical Inference

Populations and Samples

The Null Hypothesis

Statistical Decisions and Alpha Levels

Type I and Type II Errors

Inferential Statistics

Testing for Mean Differences

t-Test for Independent Groups

Correlated t-Test

Analysis of Variance

The Power of a Statistical Test

Effect Size

Statistical versus Practical Significance

Meta-analysis

Putting It into Practice

Chapter Summary

Exercises

6. Field Research: Naturalistic and Case-Study Research

The Challenge of Low-Constraint Research

Examples of Naturalistic Observation

Biology

(Historical Lesson: Naturalistic Research and Evolution)

Ethology

Sociology

Psychology

Examples of Case-Study Research

Sigmund Freud

E. L. Witmer

Jean Piaget

Contemporary Case Studies

The Value of Low-Constraint Methods

Conditions for Using Low-Constraint Research

(Historical Lesson: The Therapist as a Scientist)

Information Gained from Low-Constraint Research

Using Low-Constraint Methods

Problem Statements and Research Hypotheses

Making Observations

How to Observe

Unobtrusive Measures

Ethics of Unobtrusive Measures

Archival Measures

Sampling of Participants

Sampling of Situations

Sampling of Behaviors

Evaluating and Interpreting Data

Limitations of Low-Constraint Methods

Poor Representativeness

Poor Replicability

Causal Inference and Low-Constraint Research

Limitations of the Observer

Going beyond the Data

Putting It into Practice

Chapter Summary

Exercises

7. Correlational and Differential Methods of Research

Correlational Research Methods

Differential Research Methods

Cross-Sectional versus Longitudinal Research

Artifacts and Confounding

Understanding Correlational and Differential Methods

Comparing These Methods

When to Use These Methods

Conducting Correlational Research

Problem Statements

Detecting Demographic, Gender, or Cultural Effects

Measuring the Variables

Sampling

Analyzing the Data

Interpreting the Correlation

Conducting Differential Research

Problem Statements

Measuring the Variables

Selecting Appropriate Control Groups

Sampling

Analyzing the Data

Interpreting the Data

Limitations of Correlational and Differential Research

Problems in Determining Causation

Confounding Variables

Putting It into Practice

Chapter Summary

Exercises

8. Hypothesis Testing, Validity, and Threats to Validity

Hypothesis Testing

Starting the Research with an Initial Idea

Statement of the Problem

Operational Definitions

Research Hypothesis

The Contribution of Theory to the Research Hypothesis

Testing the Research Hypothesis

Null Hypothesis

Confounding Variable Hypothesis

Causal Hypothesis

Validity and Threats to Validity

Statistical Validity

Construct Validity

External Validity

Internal Validity

Major Confounding Variables

Maturation

History

Testing

Instrumentation

Regression to the Mean

Selection

Attrition

Diffusion of Treatment

Sequence Effects

Subject and Experimenter Effects

Subject Effects

Experimenter Effects

Putting It into Practice

Chapter Summary

Exercises

9. Controls to Reduce Threats to Validity

General Control Procedures

Preparation of the Setting

Response Measurement

Replication

Control over Subject and Experimenter Effects

Single- and Double-Blind Procedures

Automation

Using Objective Measures

Multiple Observers

(Historical Lesson: Reliable Reliability)

Using Deception

Control through Participant Selection and Assignment

Participant Selection

Random Sampling

Stratified Random Sampling

Ad Hoc Samples

Participant Assignment

Free Random Assignment

Matched Random Assignment

Other Matching Procedures

Control through Experimental Design

Putting It into Practice

Chapter Summary

Exercises

10. Single-Variable, Independent-Groups Designs

Variance

Sources of Variance

Systematic Between-Groups Variance

Nonsystematic Within-Groups Variance

Controlling Variance in Research

Maximizing Experimental Variance

Controlling Extraneous Variance

Minimizing Error Variance

Nonexperimental Approaches

Ex Post Facto Studies

(Costs of Neglect: Seeing All Sides)

Single-Group, Posttest-Only Studies

Single-Group, Pretest-Posttest Studies

Pretest-Posttest, Natural Control-Group Studies

Experimental Designs

Randomized, Posttest-Only, Control-Group Design

Randomized, Pretest-Posttest, Control-Group Design

Multilevel, Completely Randomized, Between-Subjects Design

Solomon's Four-Group Design

Statistical Analyses

t-Test

Analysis of Variance

Specific Means Comparisons in ANOVA

Putting It into Practice

Chapter Summary

Exercises

11. Correlated-Groups and Single-Subject Designs

Within-Subjects Design

Using Within-Subjects Designs

Analyzing Within-Subjects Designs

Strengths and Weaknesses of Within-Subjects Designs

Matched-Subjects Design

Using Matched-Subjects Designs

Analyzing Matched-Subjects Designs

Strengths and Weaknesses of Matched-Subjects Designs

Single-Subject Experimental Designs

(Historical Lesson: Neuropsychological Cases)

ABA Reversal Design

Multiple-baseline Design

Single-Subject, Randomized, Time-Series Design

Replication in Single-Subject Research

Putting It into Practice

Chapter Summary

Exercises

12. Factorial Designs

Factorial Designs

Main Effects and Interactions

Possible Outcomes of Factorial Designs

An Example: Children's Dark-Fears Study

Analysis of Variance in Factorial Designs

Variations of Basic Factorial Design

Within-Subjects or Repeated-Measures Factorial

Mixed Designs

Between-Subjects and Within-Subjects Factors

Manipulated and Nonmanipulated Factors

Mixed in Both Ways

Solomon's Four-Group Design

ANOVA: A Postscript

Analysis of Covariance

Multivariate Analysis of Variance

Putting It into Practice

Chapter Summary

Exercises

13. A Second Look at Field Research: Field Experiments, Program Evaluation, and Survey Research

Conducting Field Research

Reasons for Doing Field Research

Testing External Validity

Studying Effects in the Field

Improving Generalization

Difficulties in Field Research

Flexibility in Research

Quasi-experimental Designs

Nonequivalent Control-Group Design

Interrupted Time-Series Design

Program Evaluation

(Historical Lesson: From Head Start to Heads Up)

Practical Problems in Program Evaluation Research

Issues of Control

Selecting Appropriate Dependent Measures

Minimizing Bias in Dependent Measures

Control through Research Design in Program Evaluation

Typical Program Evaluation Designs

Randomized Control-group Design

Nonequivalent Control-group Design

Single-Group, Time-Series Design

Pretest-posttest Design

Program Evaluation: An Example

Surveys

Types of Surveys

Status Survey

Survey Research

Steps in Survey Research

Types of Survey Instruments

Developing the Survey Instrument

Sampling Participants

Sampling Considerations

(Cost of Neglect: Political Polling and Sampling)

Sampling Procedures

Sample Size and Confidence Intervals

Survey Research Design

Cross-Sectional Design

Longitudinal Design

Putting It into Practice

Chapter Summary

Exercises

14. Final Preparations before Data Collection

Selecting Appropriate Statistical Procedures

An Initial Example

A Decision-Tree Model

Decision-Tree Flowcharts

Identify Research Variables

Describe the Study

Identify the Study's Major Characteristics

Select the Appropriate Statistics

Secondary Analyses

Post Hoc Analyses

Secondary Analyses to Help to Explain the Results

Data Snooping

Caveats and Disclaimers

(Historical Lesson: Robust Nature of Parametric Statistics)

Pre-Data Check

I. Initial Problem Definition

II. Clarity of the Research Hypotheses

III. Statistical Analysis Procedures

IV. Theoretical Basis and Operational Definitions

V. Adequacy of the Independent Variable Manipulation

VI. Adequacy of Dependent Measures

VII. Are All Controls in Place?

VIII. Participants

Participant Selection

Sample Size

Participant Assignment

Participant Availability

Research Ethics Considerations

IX. Preparation of the Setting

Space and Equipment

Personnel

X. Adequacy of Participant Preparation, Instruction, and Procedures

Putting It into Practice

Chapter Summary

Exercises

15. Research Methodology: An Evolving Discipline

New Directions in Research Methodology

The Evolution of Research Questions and Methods

New Statistical Methods

Analysis of Variance

Multidimensional Scaling

Statistical Analysis of Neuro-images

Meta-analysis and Cumulative Knowledge

Literature Reviews

Alpha Levels and Knowledge

Beta Levels and Knowledge

Meta-Analysis and the Problem of Type II Errors

The Impact of Other Disciplines

Interdisciplinary Research

Moving Research out of the Laboratory

The Impact of Computers

Scientific Research and Society

Science: An Interaction between Empiricism and Rationalism

The Growth of Science

Ethical Conduct in Research

The Essence of Science: A Reminder

Putting It into Practice

Chapter Summary

Exercises

Appendix A: Using the Textbook Website

Resources Available

What to Do If You Have Problems

Getting Help

Appendix Summary

Appendix B: Writing a Research Report: APA Publication Style

Structure of a Research Article

Writing the Research Report

Using Levels of Headings to Organize

Sections of a Research Report

Title Page

Abstract

Introduction

Method

Results

Discussion

References

Writing Style

Appendix Summary

Appendix C: Conducting Library Research

Using the Library

Library Resources

The Reference Librarian

How Research Materials Are Organized

Primary Sources

Journal Articles

Dissertations

Secondary Sources

Review Articles

Books and Chapters in Books

Annual Reviews

Finding the Relevant Research

Abstracting Services

Psychological Abstracts

ERIC

Subject or Keyword Services

Library Catalogs

Books in Print

Index Medicus

Readers' Guide to Periodic Literature

Literature Citation Indexes

Search Strategies

Searching by Topic

Identifying Key Terms

Computer Searches

Searching Backward

Searching Forward

Appendix Summary

Appendix D: Random Numbers

Appendix E: Answers to Quick-Check Review Questions

Glossary

References

Author Index

Subject Index

Additional information

CIN000235514
9780205484751
0205484751
Research Methods: A Process of Inquiry: United States Edition by Anthony M. Graziano
Used - Very Good
Hardback
Pearson Education (US)
2006-05-02
480
N/A
Book picture is for illustrative purposes only, actual binding, cover or edition may vary.
This is a used book - there is no escaping the fact it has been read by someone else and it will show signs of wear and previous use. Overall we expect it to be in very good condition, but if you are not entirely satisfied please get in touch with us

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