**Origin and classification of soils**

Introduction: what is soil mechanics?

Structure of the earth

Origin of soils

Soil mineralogy

Phase relationships for soils

Unit weight

Effective stress

Particle size distributions

Soil filters

Soil description

Index tests and classification of clay soils

Compaction

Houses built on clay

Key points

Self-assessment and Learning Questions

Origins and mineralogy of soils

Phase relationships, unit weight and calculation of effective stresses

Particle size analysis and soil filters

Index tests and classification

Compaction

Notes

References

** ****Soil strength**

**Introduction**

**Stress analysis**

**Soil strength**

**Friction**

**Shearbox or direct shear apparatus**

**Presentation of shearbox test data in engineering units**

**Volume changes during shear**

**Critical states**

**Peak strengths and dilation**

**Shearbox tests on clays**

**Applications**

**Stress states in the shearbox test**

**Simple shear apparatus**

**Key points**

**Self-assessment and learning questions**

**Shearbox test**

**Development of a critical state model**

**Determination of peak strengths**

**Use of strength data to calculate friction pile load capacity**

**Stress analysis and interpretation of shearbox test data**

**References**

** ****Groundwater flow and control**

**Introduction**

**Pore water pressures in the ground**

**Darcy's law and soil permeability**

**Laboratory measurement of permeability**

**Field measurement of permeability**

**Permeability of laminated soils**

**Mathematics of groundwater flow**

**Plane flow**

**Confined flownets**

**Calculation of pore water pressures using flownets**

**Quicksand**

**Unconfined flownets**

**Distance of influence**

**Soils with anisotropic permeability**

**Zones of different permeability**

**Boundary conditions for flow into drains**

**Application of well pumping formulae to construction dewatering**

**Numerical methods**

**Groundwater control**

**Unsaturated soils**

**Key points**

**Self-assessment and learning questions**

**Laboratory measurement of permeability; fluidisation; layered soils**

**Well pumping test for field measurement of permeability**

**Confined flownets and quicksand**

**Unconfined flownet**

**Flownets in anisotropic soils**

**Notes**

**References**

** ****One-dimensional compression and consolidation**

**Introduction and objectives**

**One-dimensional compression: the oedometer test**

**One-dimensional consolidation**

**Properties of isochrones**

**One-dimensional consolidation: solution using parabolic isochrones**

**Determining the consolidation coefficient cv from oedometer test data**

**Application of consolidation testing and theory to field problems**

**One-dimensional consolidation: exact solutions**

**Radial drainage**

**Limitations of the simple models for the behaviour of soils in one-dimensional compression and consolidation**

**Key points**

**Self-assessment and learning questions**

**Analysis and interpretation of one-dimensional compression test data**

**Analysis of data from the consolidation phase**

**Application of one-dimensional compression and consolidation theory to field problems**

**Notes**

**References**

** ****Triaxial test and soil behaviour**

**Introduction**

**Triaxial test**

**Stress parameters**

**Stress analysis of the triaxial test**

**Determining the effective angle of shearing resistance ' from triaxial shear tests**

**Undrained shear strengths of clay soils**

**Isotropic compression and swelling**

**Specimen preparation by one-dimensional compression and swelling: K consolidation**

**Conditions imposed in shear tests**

**Critical states**

**Yield**

**State paths during shear: normally consolidated and lightly overconsolidated clays**

**Peak strengths**

**Residual strength**

**Sensitive soils**

**Correlation of critical state parameters with index tests**

**Creep**

**Anisotropy**

**Unsaturated soils**

**Critical state model applied to sands**

**Non-linear soil models**

**Repeated or cyclic loading**

**Key points**

**Self-assessment and learning questions**

**Interpretation of triaxial test results**

**Determination of critical state and Cam clay parameters**

**Analysis and prediction of state paths using Cam clay concepts**

**Notes**

**References**

** ****Calculation of soil settlements using elasticity methods**

**Introduction**

**Selection of elastic parameters**

**Boussinesq's solution**

**Newmark's chart and estimation of vertical stress**

**Settlements due to surface loads and foundations**

**Influence factors for stress**

**Standard solutions for surface settlements on an isotropic, homogeneous, elastic half-space**

**Estimation of immediate settlements**

**Effect of heterogeneity**

**Cross-coupling of shear and volumetric effects due to anisotropy**

**Key points**

**Self-assessment and learning questions**

**Determining elastic parameters from laboratory test data**

**Calculation of increases in vertical effective stress below a surface surcharge**

**Calculation of increases in vertical effective stress and resulting soil settlements**

**Use of standard formulae in conjunction with one-dimensional consolidation theory**

**References**

** ****Plasticity and limit equilibrium methods for earth pressures and retaining walls**

**Engineering plasticity**

**Upper and lower bounds (safe and unsafe solutions)**

**Failure criteria for soils**

**Retaining walls**

**Calculation of limiting lateral earth pressures**

**Development of simple stress field solutions for a propped embedded cantilever retaining wall**

**Soil/wall friction**

**Mechanism-based kinematic and equilibrium solutions for gravity retaining walls**

**Reinforced soil walls**

**Compaction stresses behind backfilled walls**

**Key points**

**Self-assessment and learning questions**

**Calculation of lateral earth pressures and prop loads**

**Stress field limit equilibrium analysis of an embedded retaining wall**

**Mechanism-based limit equilibrium analysis of retaining walls**

**Reinforced soil retaining walls**

**Compaction stresses**

**References**

** ****Foundations and slopes**

**Introduction and objectives**

**Shallow strip foundations (footings): simple lower bound (safe) solutions**

**Simple upper bound (unsafe) solutions for shallow strip footings**

**Bearing capacity enhancement factors to account for foundation shape and depth, and soil weight**

**Shallow foundations subjected to horizontal and moment loads**

**Simple piled foundations: ultimate axial loads of single piles**

**. -crit or-peak**

**Pile groups and piled rafts**

**Lateral loads on piles**

**Introductory slope stability: the infinite slope**

**Analysis of a more general slope**

**Laterally loaded piles for slope stabilisation**

**Key points**

**Self-assessment and learning questions**

**Shallow foundations**

**Deep foundations**

**Laterally loaded piles**

**Slopes**

**References**

** ****In-ground retaining structures: embedded walls and tunnels**

**Introduction and objectives**

**Earth pressure coefficients taking account of shear stresses at the soil/wall interface**

**Limit equilibrium calculations for embedded retaining walls and ultimate limit state design**

**Calculation of bending moments and prop loads: serviceability limit states**

**Embedded walls retaining clay soils**

**Geostructural mechanism to estimate wall movements**

**Effect of relative soil: wall stiffness**

**Strip loads**

**Multi-propped embedded walls**

**Tunnels**

**Key points**

**Self-assesment and learning questions**

**Embedded retaining walls and ULS design**

**Tunnels**

**Note**

**References**

** ****Calculation of improved bearing capacity factors and earth pressure coefficients using plasticity methods**

**Introduction and objectives**

**Stress discontinuities and their use to calculate improved bearing capacity factors for a shallow foundation subjected to a vertical load: effective stress ( ') analysis**

**Stress discontinuities and their use to calculate improved bearing capacity factors for a shallow foundation subjected to a vertical load: total stress ( u) analysis**

**Application to stress analysis**

**Shallow foundations subjected to inclined loads**

**Calculation of earth pressure coefficients for rough retaining walls**

**Sloping backfill**

**Wall with a sloping (battered) back**

**Improved upper bounds for shallow foundations**

**Key points**

**Self assesment and learning questions**

**Bearing capacity of foundations**

**Retaining walls and earth pressures**

**References**

** ****Site investigation, in situ testing and modelling**

**Introduction and objectives**

**Site investigation**

**In situ testing**

**Modelling**

**Ground improvement**

**Key points**

**Self-assessment and learning questions**

**In situ testing**

**Modelling**

**Ground improvement**

**Notes**

**References**

**Index **