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Current Ornithology Richard Johnston

Current Ornithology By Richard Johnston

Current Ornithology by Richard Johnston

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Ornithology, as a whole-organism science, is concerned with birds at every level of bi ological organization, from the molecular to the community, at least from the Jurassic to the present time, and over every scholarly discipline in which bird biology is done;

Current Ornithology Summary

Current Ornithology by Richard Johnston

The appearance of the first volume of a projected series is the occasion for comment on scope, aims, and genesis of the work. The scope of Current Ornithology is all of the biology of birds. Ornithology, as a whole-organism science, is concerned with birds at every level of bi ological organization, from the molecular to the community, at least from the Jurassic to the present time, and over every scholarly discipline in which bird biology is done; to say this is merely to expand a dic tionary definition of "ornithology. " The aim of the work, to be realized over several volumes, is to present reviews or position statements con cerning the active fields of ornithological research. The reviews will be relatively short, and often will be done from the viewpoint of a readily identified group or school. Such a work could have come into being at any time within the past fifty years, but that Current Ornithology appears now is a result of events that are only seven to eight years old. One important event was the initiation in 1975-1976 of the Workshop on a National Plan for Ornithology, under the directorship of James R. King and Walter J. Bock, cosponsored by the American Ornithologists' Union and the Na tional Science Foundation. Part of the Workshop's interests lay in pub lications resources, and certain kinds of information on publications were obtained by means of a questionnaire.

Table of Contents

1 Comparative Avian Demography.- 1. Introduction.- 2. Phenomenology and Hypotheses.- 3. Demographic Evolution.- 3.1. Criterion for Fitness.- 3.2. Parameterization.- 3.3. Constraint and Optimization.- 3.4. The Constraint Function.- 3.5. The Optimization Criterion.- 3.6. Interpreting Differences in Life-History Patterns.- 4. Density Dependence.- 5. Demographic Evolution in Varying Environments.- 5.1. r- and K-Selection.- 5.2. Bet Hedging.- 6. Correlated Environmental Factors.- 7. Discussion.- References.- 2 The Determination of Clutch Size in Precocial Birds.- 1. Introduction.- 2. Precocial Development.- 3. Clutch Size Theory and Terminology.- 4. Patterns in Clutch Size Variation.- 5. Factors Limiting Clutch Size.- 5.1. Egg Formation Ability.- 5.2. Parental Behavior.- 5.3. Incubation Ability.- 5.4. Nest Predation.- 5.5. Explanations of Geographic and Seasonal Trends.- 6. Discussion.- 6.1. The Web of Causation.- 6.2. Levels of Explanation.- 6.3. Complications.- 7. Conclusions.- References.- 3 Structure and Function of Avian Eggs.- 1. Introduction.- 2. Mass and Contents of Eggs.- 2.1. Mass and Contents of Fresh Eggs.- 2.2. Contents of Pipped Eggs.- 3. Gas Exchange.- 3.1. Exchange of Water.- 3.2. Exchange of O2 and CO2.- 3.3. Adaptation to Diverse Gaseous Environments.- 4. Gas Exchange and the Eggshell.- 4.1. Eggshell.- 4.2. Pores.- 4.3. Modification of Eggshells in Various Environments.- 5. Summary.- References.- 4 The Origin of Birds and of Avian Flight.- 1. Introduction.- 2. The Nature of Archaeopteryx.- 2.1. Bipedalism.- 2.2. Flight.- 3. The Origin of Birds.- 3.1. The Pseudosuchian Origin.- 3.2. Ornithischian Relationship.- 3.3. Crocodilian Relationships.- 3.4. The Coelurosaurian Origin.- 4. The Origin of Avian Flight.- 5. Conclusions.- References.- 5 The Great Plains Hybrid Zones.- 1. Introduction.- 1.1. Delimiting the Plains.- 1.2. What is Hybridization?.- 2. Accounts of Hybridizing Taxa.- 2.1. Otus.- 2.2. Coiaptes.- 2.3. Centurus.- 2.4. Myiarchus.- 2.5. Contopus.- 2.6. Cyanocitta.- 2.7. Parus (Chickadees).- 2.8. Parus (Crested Titmice).- 2.9. Sialia.- 2.10. Sturneiia.- 2.11. Icterus.- 2.12. Pheucticus.- 2.13. Passerina.- 2.14. Pipilo.- 3. Discussion.- 3.1. Stability of Zones.- 3.2. Increased Variability in Zones.- 3.3. Suture-Zones in the Great Plains.- 3.4. Taxonomic Comments.- References.- 6 Species Concepts and Speciation Analysis.- 1. Introduction.- 2. Species Concepts.- 2.1. The "Biological Species" Concept.- 2.2. Are "Biological Species" the Units of Evolution?.- 2.3. A Proposed Species Concept for Ornithology.- 3. Speciation Analysis.- 3.1. Introduction.- 3.2. How Are Areas of Endemism Determined?.- 3.3. How Is the History of Areas of Endemism Determined?.- 3.4. How Might General Area-Cladograms Be Explained?.- 3.5. Conclusions.- References.- 7 Bird Chromosomes.- 1. Introduction.- 2. The Diploid Number Problem.- 2.1. Utility of Cell Culture Procedures.- 2.2. Meiotic Procedures.- 3. Differential Banding Procedures.- 3.1. C-Banding.- 3.2. G-Bands.- 3.3. R-Banding.- 3.4. NOR-Banding.- 3.5. Sequential Banding.- 4. Concluding Remarks.- References.- 8 Genetic Structure and Avian Systematics.- 1. Introduction.- 2. Methods of Data Acquisition and Analysis.- 2.1. Electrophoretic Studies.- 2.2. Hardy-Weinberg Equilibria.- 2.3. Genie Heterozygosity.- 2.4. Genetic Distance between Taxa.- 2.5. Analysis of Genetic Variance.- 3. Genetic Data and Their Role in Systematics.- 3.1. Relationship between Genetic Structure and Higher Taxa.- 3.2. Genetic Structure at the Species Level.- 3.3. Genetic Structure within Species.- 4. Conclusions.- References.- 9 Phylogeny and Classification of Birds Based on the Data of DNA-DNA Hybridization.- 1. Introduction.- 2. The DNA-DNA Hybridization Technique.- 2.1. DNA Structure and Properties.- 2.2. The Sequence Organization of the Genome in Relation to DNA-DNA Hybridization.- 2.3. Factors That Determine the Rate and Extent of Reassociation, and the Thermal Stability of DNA-DNA Hybrids.- 2.4. The Hydroxyapatite (HAP) Column Chromatography Procedure.- 3. The Analysis of DNA-DNA Hybridization Data.- 3.1. Definitions.- 3.2. The Average Rate of Base Substitution.- 3.3. Mathematical Analysis of DNA-DNA Data.- 3.4. A "Robust" Clustering Method for DNA Hybridization Data.- 3.5. Reliability, Sensitivity, and Reciprocity.- 4. Homology.- 5. The Evolution of DNA.- 5.1. The Uniform Average Rate of DNA Evolution.- 5.2. The New Zealand Wrens (Acanthisittidae).- 5.3. The Hawaiian Honeycreepers.- 5.4. The Australo-Papuan Fairy-Wrens (Maluridae).- 5.5. Genetic Rate vs. Morphological Rates.- 5.6. Congruence between Morphological and DNA-DNA Hybridization Data.- 5.7. Generation Time.- 6. The Calibration Problem.- 7. Adaptive Radiation.- 8. Categorical Equivalence.- 9. Classification.- References.- 10 Experimental Analysis of Avian Limb Morphogenesis.- 1. Introduction.- 2. Mapping the Prospective Skeletal Areas.- 3. Regulation along Proximo-distal and Antero-posterior Axes.- 4. The ZPA and Experimental Analysis of Control of Antero-posterior Differentiation of the Wing.- 4.1. The ZPA and Normal Development.- 4.2. The Polar Coordinate Model and the Chick Wing Bud.- 5. Somite and Limb Bud Developmental Relations.- 5.1. Developmental Dependence.- 5.2. The Somitic Contribution of the Musculature.- 6. Innervation and Limb Development.- 6.1. Role of Limb Pattern in Establishing Innervation.- 6.2. Relationship between Neurons and Peripheral Conditions.- 6.3. Relationship between Axons and Their Targets.- 6.4. Innervation and the Pattern of Skeletal Differentiation.- 7. Conclusions.- References.- 11 Variation in Mate Fidelity in Monogamous Birds.- 1. Introduction.- 2. Which Birds Are Monogamous?.- 3. Types of Variations in Mate Fidelity.- 3.1. Extrapair Copulations.- 3.2. Circumstantial Evidence for an EPC Strategy.- 4. Opportunistic and Facultative Polygyny.- 4.1. North American Passerines.- 4.2. European Passerines.- 4.3. Non-Passerines.- 5. Polyandry.- 6. Conclusion.- References.- 12 The Evolution of Differential Bird Migration.- 1. Introduction.- 2. Winter Distribution of Eastern Migratory Juncos.- 3. Single-Factor Hypotheses for the Evolution of Differential Migration.- 3.1. The Body-Size Hypothesis.- 3.2. The Dominance Hypothesis.- 3.3. The Arrival-Time Hypothesis.- 4. A Multifactor Hypothesis for the Evolution of Differential Migration.- 4.1. The Migration-Threshold Hypothesis.- 5. Conclusions.- References.- Author Index.- Bird Name Index.

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Current Ornithology by Richard Johnston
Springer-Verlag New York Inc.
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