Henri Barbusse enlisted in the French army in 1914 and served against Germany in WWI. Invalided out of the army three times, he served in the war for 17 months, until the end of 1915, when he was permanently moved into a clerical position due to pulmonary damage, exhaustion and dysentery. Barbusse first came to fame with the publication of his novel Le Feu (translated by William Fitzwater Wray as Under Fire) in 1916, which was based on his experiences. By this time, Barbusse had become a pacifist, and his writing demonstrated his growing hatred of militarism. He moved to Moscow for a time, married a Russian woman, and joined the French Communist Party.